• Updated on: Nov 22, 2015

## Switches - Using limit switches to control behavior

Limit switches are often used to control mechanisms on robots. While limit switches are simple to use, they only can sense a single position of a moving part. This makes them ideal for ensuring that movement doesn't exceed some limit but not so good at controlling the speed of the movement as it approaches the limit. For example, a rotational shoulder joint on a robot arm would best be controlled using a potentiometer or an absolute encoder, the limit switch could make sure that if the potentiometer ever failed, the limit switch would stop the robot from going to far and causing damage.

• Updated on: Nov 19, 2015

## Operating the robot with feedback from sensors (PID control)

Without feedback the robot is limited to using timing to determine if it's gone far enough, turned enough, or is going fast enough. And for mechanisms, without feedback it's almost impossible to get arms at the right angle, elevators at the right height, or shooters to the right speed. There are a number of ways of getting these mechanisms to operate in a predictable way. The most common is using PID (Proportional, Integral, and Differential) control. The basic idea is that you have a sensor like a potentiometer or encoder that can measure the variable you're trying to control with a motor. In the case of an arm you might want to control the angle - so you use a potentiometer to measure the angle. The potentiometer is an analog device, it returns a voltage that is proportional to the shaft angle of the arm.

To move the arm to a preset position, say for scoring, you predetermine what the potentiometer voltage should be at that preset point, then read the arms current angle (voltage). The different between the current value and the desired value represents how far the arm needs to move and is called the error. The idea is to run the motor in a direction that reduces the error, either clockwise or counterclockwise. And the amount of error (distance from your setpoint) determines how fast the arm should move. As it gets closer to the setpoint, it slows down and finally stops moving when the error is near zero.

The WPILib PIDController class is designed to accept the sensor values and output motor values. Then given a setpoint, it generates a motor speed that is appropriate for its calculated error value.

• Updated on: Nov 17, 2015

## Connecting the operator interface to a command

Commands handle the behaviors for your robot. The command starts a subsystem to some operating mode like raising and elevator and continues running until it reaches some setpoint or timeout. The command then handles waiting for the subsystem to finish. That way commands can run in sequence to develop more complex behaviors.

RobotBuilder will also generate code to schedule a command to run whenever a button on your operator interface is pressed. You can also write code to run a command when a particular trigger condition has happened.

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Nov 14, 2015

## Creating a command that runs other commands

Often you will want to run multiple commands, one after another to enable more complex behaviors in your program. Once each of the individual commands have been debugged, you can create a CommandGroup. A CommandGroup is a named set of commands that may be executed sequentially or in parallel.

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Nov 14, 2015

## Setting the default autonomous command

Since a command is simply one or more actions (behaviors) that the robot performs, it makes sense to describe the autonomous operation of a robot as a command. While it could be a single command, it is more likely going to be a command group (a group of commands that happen together).

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Nov 14, 2015

## Setting the default command for a subsystem

Once you have some commands created, you can set one of them to be the default command for a subsystem. Default commands run automatically when nothing else is running that requires that subsystem. A good example is having a drive train subsystem with a default command that reads joysticks. That way, whenever the robot program isn't running other commands to operate the drive train under program control, it will operate with joysticks.

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Nov 04, 2015

## Creating a command

Commands are classes you create that provide behaviors or actions for your subsystems. The subsystem class should set the operation of the subsystem, like MoveElevator to start the elevator moving, or ElevatorToSetPoint to set the elevator's PID setpoint. The commands initiate the subsystem operation and keep track of when it is finished.

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Nov 04, 2015

## Creating a subsystem

Subsystems are classes that encapsulate (or contain) all the data and code that make a subsystem on your robot operate. The first step in creating a robot program with the RobotBuilder is to identify and create all the subsystems on the robot. Examples of subsystems are grippers, ball collectors, the drive base, elevators, arms, etc. Each subsystem contains all the sensors and actuators that are used to make it work. For example, an elevator might have a Jaguar speed controller and a potentiometer to provide feedback of the robot position.

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Aug 12, 2015

## The RobotBuilder user interface

Manual RobotBuilder
• Updated on: Jun 04, 2015

## Using limit switches to control behavior

Limit switches are often used to control mechanisms on robots. While limit switches are simple to use, they only can sense a single position of a moving part. This makes them ideal for ensuring that movement doesn't exceed some limit but not so good at controlling the speed of the movement as it approaches the limit. For example, a rotational shoulder joint on a robot arm would best be controlled using a potentiometer or an absolute encoder, the limit switch could make sure that if the potentiometer ever failed, the limit switch would stop the robot from going to far and causing damage.